Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics(United States)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an alpha-synucleinopathy that leads to prominent motor symptoms including tremor, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Nonmotor symptoms including autonomic, neurocognitive, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep disturbances are also seen frequently in PD. The impact of PD on sleep is related to motor and nonmotor symptoms, in addition to the disruption of the pathways regulating sleep by central nervous system pathology. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia that can lead to self-injury and/or injury to partners at night. Restless legs syndrome is a subjective sensation of discomfort and urge to move the legs prior to falling asleep and can lead to insomnia and reduced sleep quality. Excessive daytime sleepiness is common in PD and exerts a negative impact on quality of life in addition to increasing the risk of falls. Obstructive sleep apnea is a breathing disorder during sleep that can cause frequent awakenings and excessive daytime sleepiness. Circadian rhythm dysfunction can lead to an advanced or delayed onset of sleep in patients and create disruption of normal sleep and wake times. All of these disorders are common in PD and can significantly reduce sleep quantity, sleep quality, or quality of life for patients and caretakers. Treatment approaches for each of these disorders are distinct and should be individualized to the patient. We review the literature regarding these common sleep issues encountered in PD and their treatment options.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, SLEEP, circadian rhythm disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), restless legs syndrome (RLS)
DOI: 10.1007/s13311-020-00938-yFull Text Article
Review, Journal Article