Constipation and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are the earliest non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD). Among non-motor symptoms of PD, it is unclear whether constipation and RBD at early stages of PD are related to cognitive outcomes at later stages. Herein, this study aims to investigate whether the presence of constipation and RBD have an impact on future cognitive outcomes in PD. Access to Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database of 360 PD patients with longitudinal observation was requested. Constipation, probable RBD (pRBD) and neuropsychological task scores of PD patients were assessed at baseline and after 5 years. Linear mixed-effects modelling, controlling for gender, age, years of education and LEDD was used to evaluate the association between baseline constipation, pRBD and cognitive performance on follow-up. Gender differences in neuropsychological test performances were found, with men having worse global cognition, speed-attention processing, verbal learning and memory than women at early stages of the disease. We found constipation and pRBD are strongly associated with future decline in some cognitive measures among PD patients, more prominently in men. Our data suggest that early assessment of pRBD and constipation may allow better understanding of the progression of cognitive changes in later phases of PD.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-75800-4Full Text Article
Sci Rep. ;10(1):19014